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SIGN Links

Additional resources, SIGN Network partner organizations, and other useful links

 

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Injection Safety at the PATH Vaccine Resources Library

http://www.path.org/index.php

This report discusses the work of PATH’s Children’s Vaccine Program and the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh to build a model immunization program, including the incorporation of hepatitis B vaccine into the childhood vaccination program.  Author: PATH  Published: 2004

This article from the Bulletin of the World Health Organization discusses the popularity of injections, as well as the widespread practice of injections provided by both formal and informal health care providers. Author: Reeler A Published: 2000

From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this article discusses evidence-based guidelines for making injections safer. Abstracts are available in Spanish, French, and Arabic. Author: Hutin Y, Hauri A, Chiarello L, et al. Published: 2003

This leaflet outlines the best practices for safe injections, with pictograms to aid in training. Topics include preventing needlestick injuries to the provider, using sterile equipment, preventing contamination of equipment and medication, and … Author: World Health Organization, Safe Injection Global Network, and the International Council of Nurses Published: 2001

This paper examines the health risks posed by unsafe injections in Africa and outlines some of the programs that are helping reduce these risks. Author: Practical Patient Care Published: 2008

This 30-page manual for program managers helps guide decision-making related to safe syringe disposal at the district level. A range of disposal methods and issues are covered, including practical advice on incineration (with details on two small …  Author: PATH  Published: 2003

The paper reports on a field trial of disposal and destruction methods (including autocombustion incinerators) in the two countries.  Author: World Health Organization  Published: 1998

Framework for Conducting a Self-Assessment of National Progress in Injection Waste Management, Version 1

This tool was developed to provide a simple, efficient framework for conducting a self-assessment of health care waste-management (HCWM) planning at the national level. By collecting data on key achievements, knowledge, and practices at …

Author: PATH

Published: 2008

Giving Safe Injections: Using Auto-Disable Syringes for Immunization

This excellent, 112-page manual is a training curriculum for health care workers who provide injections. It includes information on the health impact of unsafe injections, selecting safe and effective vaccines, reconsituting vaccines safely, reading …

Author: PATH

Published: 2001

Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety

The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety was established at WHO in 1999 “to respond promptly, efficiently, and with scientific rigour to vaccine safety issues of global importance.” The site contains Q&As, policy statements, and …

Author: World Health Organization

Guidelines for National Strategies for the Safe and Appropriate Use of Injections

This two-page document summarizes key elements to assist in the development of a national strategy for ensuring safe and appropriate use of injections.

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2000

Haemophilus influenzae type b Immunization

This document outlines the introduction process for Hib conjugate vaccine into national immunization services. It offers a summary of WHO policies and practices regarding Hib immunization, and includes information on immunization strategies, …

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2001

Health Care Waste Management Resources

PATH has gathered available resources on health care waste management to provide easy access to the information. This web page is intended to serve as a resource for countries and programs working to improve health care waste management.

Author: Various

Healthcare Waste Management

This website is designed to promote the safe management of health care waste through news, publications, general information, and services for professionals in health care waste management.

Author: World Health Organization

Hepatitis B Immunization: Introducing Hepatitis B Vaccine into National Immunization Services

This document outlines the introduction process for hepatitis B vaccine into national immunization services. It offers a summary of WHO policies and practices regarding hepatitis B immunization, and includes information on immunization …

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2001

Immunization Safety Review: Vaccinations and Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy

Read this report free on the web or order the book from this site. The authors reviewed epidemiologic evidence on Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) and neonatal death. Based on their review, investigators found that evidence did not support …

Author: US Institute of Medicine

Published: 2003

Immunizing Children Against Haemophilus influenzae type b

Part of the “Training Resource Series,” this training manual for vaccinators can be adapted for specific national programs. In addition to key technical content—including sections on using monovalent, quadrivalent, or pentavalent Hib …

Author: PATH

Published: 2006

Improved Injection Practices After the Introduction of Treatment and Sterility Guidelines in Tanzania

From the journal of Tropical Medicine and International Health, this article follows a training program at health centers, observations included increased health worker knowledge and improved sterilization practices, along with reductions …

Author: Vos J, Gumodoka B, van Asten HA, et al.

Published: 1998

Infection Prevention: An Online Course

Designed to help health care providers, supervisors of health care facilities, and medical/nursing students strengthen their ability to protect themselves, their clients, and members of the surrounding community from infections. Topics covered …

Author: EngenderHealth

Published: 2004

Injection Safety and Technology

Resources available on this web page include scientific articles, technical tools, policy statements, and more on injection safety and technology.

Author: World Health Organization

Injection Safety Fact Sheet

This document summarizes issues and concerns associated with unsafe injection practices.

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2006

Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine into Immunization Programmes

WHO recommends that Hib vaccine now be included in routine infant immunization programmes for all children, as appropriate to national capacities and priorities. This manual provides managers with the information they need to implement a …

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2000

Introduction of Hepatitis B Vaccine into Childhood Immunization Services

WHO recommends that hepatitis B vaccine be included in routine immunization schedules for all children in all countries. This manual provides management guidelines for the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine into childhood immunization …

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2001

Landscape Analysis: Trends in Vaccine Availability and Novel Vaccine Delivery Technologies: 2008–2025

This landscape analysis identifies trends in the availability of vaccines and novel vaccine delivery technologies that are and will be of relevance to low- and middle-income countries from the present through 2025.

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Published: 2008

Logistics of Health Care Waste Management: Information and Approaches for Developing Country Settings

This publication, produced by the US Agency for International Development’s Deliver Project, considers the reality of health care waste management practices in resource-limited settings, and offers solutions based on actual experience …

Author: USAID Deliver Project

Published: 2009

Pasted from <http://www.path.org/vaccineresources

 Managing Sharps Waste in Andhra Pradesh

A report on the introduction and scale up of a practical system for sharps waste management focused on reducing the number of injections given, needle removal, syringe disinfection, and collection of syringe plastic for recycling.

Author: PATH, US Agency for International Development, and the Government of Andhra Pradesh

Published: 2007

Online Resources for Health Professionals

The web page provides links to general information on vaccines for health practitioners.

Author: The Vaccine Page

Optimal Intramuscular Needle-Penetration Depth

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has needle-length recommendations for intramuscular vaccinations in the thigh and shoulder on the basis of the age of the child. Underpenetration of the intramuscular layer with short needles …

Author: Lippert WC, Wall E

Published: 2008

Perceptions About Injections and Private-Sector Injection Practices in Central Nepal

This eye-opening report documents provider injection practices and attitudes toward medical injections among providers and the general public. In spite of widespread use of disposible syringes and seemingly high awareness of the dangers of …

Author: PATH and the General Welfare Pratisthan

Published: 2000

Practical, Local Solutions for Safely Managing Contaminated Syringes and Other Medical Waste

Until recently little guidance had been available on practical, affordable, and safe waste storage and collection systems or on construction of effective burners. PATH partnered with Nepali nongovernmental organization General Welfare Pratistan and …

Author: PATH

Published: 2004

Progress in Improving the Safety of Injections in the EPI Western Pacific Region

Includes a “Guide for developing a national plan of action for injection safety” and a “Checklist for EPI supervisors—sterilization and injection practices.”

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 1998

Proper Handling and Disposal of Auto-Disable Syringes and Safety Boxes

Part of the “Training Resource Series,” this unique training module was specially designed to be easy to adapt for specific national programs. In addition to key technical content it includes quizzes, role plays, and creative ideas for …

Author: PATH

Published: 2006

Prospective Assessment of the Effect of Needle Length and Injection Site on the Risk of Local Reactions to the Fifth Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis Vaccination

Local reactions are relatively common after the fifth diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination, but factors associated with an increased risk of those reactions are not well defined. The objective of this study was to assess the …

Author: Jackson LA, Starkovich P, Dunstan M, et al.

Published: 2008

Protecting Children for a Healthy Tomorrow: Lessons From the Andhra Pradesh Partnership Project on Immunization

This publication outlines the activities undertaken in the five-year Partnership Project on Immunization by the Indian state government of Andhra Pradesh and PATH to strengthen routine immunization by introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine in …

Author: PATH; Government of Andhra Pradesh, India

Published: 2006

Rapid Assessment of Perceptions, Knowledge, and Practices Related to Immunization Injection Safety in Nepal

This eye-opening report gives an in-depth look at immunization practices and concerns among immunization providers and managers in Nepal. The report shows that despite adequate training and supply of vaccines, availability of proper disposal …

Author: PATH and the General Welfare Pratisthan

Published: 2001

Reconstitution Technologies

This fact sheet provides an overview of single-dose, prefilled reconstitution devices (SPRDs), which can make reconstitution of critical vaccines safer and more economical. SPRDs can help eliminate adverse events or wastage that can occur with …

Author: PATH

Published: 2010

Safe Health Care Waste Management

A two-page aide-memoire focusing on national strategies for safe handling and disposal of medical waste.

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2000

The Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN) Alliance

Coordinated through World Health Organization (WHO), SIGN is a voluntary coalition of stakeholders aiming to achieve safe and appropriate use of injections throughout the world.

Author: World Health Organization

Safety of Immunization Injections in Africa: Not Simply a Problem of Logistics

From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this report is an evaluation of a “logistic approach” on immunization injection safety. The investigators found that unsafe injection practices were generally due to a failure …

Author: Dicko M, Oni AQ, Ganivet S, et al.

Published: 2000

Safety of Injections: Facts and Figures

This document provides global facts and figures on injection safety.

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2004

Safety of Injections: Questions and Answers

This document provides common questions and answers on injection safety, including what constitutes an unsafe injection, the potential consequences of safe injections, and disposal of syringes.

Author: World Health Organization

Published: 2004

Safety of Injections: WHO-UNICEF-UNFPA Joint Statement on the Use of Auto-Disable Syringes in Immunization Services

This policy statement outlines recommended approaches to immunization safety through the use of auto-disable syringes and proper sharps disposal.

Author: World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the United Nations Population Fund

Published: 2003

Sample Injection Safety Leaflets for Health Care Providers

Two safe injection leaflets were prepared by the Ministry of Health in Mongolia in collaboration with SIGN. One provides a guide to giving safe injections. The other provides guidelines for preventing needlestick injuries.

Author: Mongolia Ministry of Health

Published: 2001

Strategies for Safe Injections

From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, the article is a discussion of the implications of using sterilizable versus disposible injection equipment. Abstract also available in French.

Author: Battersby A, Feilden R, Stoeckel P, et al.

Published: 1999

Streamlining Immunization Logistics in the Provinces of Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia

This document reports on results from the Streamlining Immunization Logistics project, implemented between April 2005 and March 2006 in eight districts of Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The project successfully demonstrated qualitative …

Author: PATH, Indonesia Ministry of Health

Published: 2006

Strengthening Vietnam’s Immunization Program

PATH, in close partnership with Vietnam’s National Expanded Program on Immunization, has worked to increase the quality, safety, and efficiency of immunization services through the Improving Routine Immunization Services (IRIS) project. This fact …

Author: PATH

Published: 2007

Technical Network for Strengthening Immunization Services

This website, dedicated to strengthening immunization services, is managed by the World Health Organization-initiated TechNet Forum. The site provides an up-to-date news feature, a dictionary of immunization terms, articles …

Author: TechNet 21

Unsafe Injections, Fatal Injections

The authors provide an overview of medical and social science wisdom on the extent of unsafe injections and the complex reasons why many injections are given in an unsafe manner.

Author: PATH

Published: 2000

Using Uniject™ to Increase the Safety and Effectiveness of Hepatitis B Immunization

This seven-page paper describes use of an innovative injection device to immunize Indonesian newborns as soon after birth as possible. Results were positive: more infants were protected against hepatitis B earlier in life, health workers and parents …

Author: PATH

Published: 2002

Vaccine-Related Journal Articles

Compiled by the Immunization Action Coalition, this web page provides a chronological compendium of selected peer-reviewed vaccine-related articles. A user can browse by topic areas such as vaccine safety, specific diseases, and people …

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Pasted from <http://www.path.org/vaccineresources/browse.php?p=2&t=20&>

 

Vietnam: Progress Beyond High Coverage

This report discusses the work of PATH’s Children’s Vaccine Program, in close collaboration with the Vietnamese National Expanded Program on Immunization, to increase immunization program quality, safety, and efficiency, including increasing …

Author: PATH

Published: 2006

Pasted from <http://www.path.org/vaccineresources/browse.php?p=3&t=20&>

 

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