online canadian pharmacy http://www.canadianpharmacy365.net/ pharmacy ratings phentermine no prescription

SIGNpost 00863

*SAFE INJECTION GLOBAL NETWORK* SIGNPOST

Post00863 World Hepatitis Day + Abstracts + News 27 July 2016

CONTENTS
0. Moderators Note
1. World Hepatitis Day – 28 July 2016
2. Reminder: RFI: Question regarding the use reuse prevention syringes
(RUP) for therapeutic injections as a policy
3. Abstract: Relationship between sharps disposal containers and
Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals
4. Abstract: Towards safe injection practices for prevention of hepatitis
C transmission in South Asia: Challenges and progress
5. Abstract: Occupational health of home care aides: results of the safe
home care survey
6. Abstract: Incidence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids
and measures taken by health care workers before and after exposure in
regional hospitals of a developing country: a multicenter study
7. Abstract: Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among
active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico
8. Abstract: HIV Infection Linked to Injection Use of Oxymorphone in
Indiana, 2014–2015
9. Abstract: Use of a simulation intervention to examine differences in
nursing students’ hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors
10. Abstract: Clean Water for Developing Countries
11. No Abstract: Development of an Intervention to Increase Occupational
Postexposure Prophylaxis in Sub-Saharan Africa
12. News
– Pakistan: Hepatitis kills 400 people daily on average
– South Africa: Nurse seeks HIV compensation after needle jab
– USA: Needle Sharing Causes Rapid HIV Transmission in Rural U.S.
– North Carolina USA: Health Dept. sets up used needle drop, offers clean
ones
– Hong Kong: Mainland medical waste found at Lantau beach
– New Mexico USA: State Health Department: Rio Arriba woman diagnosed with
wound botulism
-India: CB-CID detects illegal sale of 230kg bio-medical waste

The web edition of SIGNpost is online at:

SIGNpost 00863

More information follows at the end of this SIGNpost!

Please send your requests, notes on progress and activities, articles,
news, and other items for posting to: sign.moderator@gmail.com

Normally, items received by Tuesday will be posted in the Wednesday
edition.

Subscribe or unsubscribe by email: signmoderator@googlegroups.com

Visit the WHO injection safety website and the SIGN Alliance Secretariat
at: http://www.who.int/injection_safety/en/

Visit the SIGNpostOnline archives at: http://signpostonline.info

Like SIGNpost on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/SIGN.Moderator
and get updates on your device!
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

0. Moderators Note
__________________________________________________________________

Subscribe or unsubscribe by email to: sign.moderator@gmail.com
or signmoderator@googlegroups.com
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

1. World Hepatitis Day – 28 July 2016

Join in the World Health Organization’s Global Strategy for Viral
Hepatitis, which sets a goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public
health threat by 2030
__________________________________________________________________

http://worldhepatitisday.org/

This year sees the first ever World Health Organization’s Global Strategy
for Viral Hepatitis, which sets a goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a
public health threat by 2030.

Let’s join together on World Hepatitis Day (28 July) to make the
elimination of viral hepatitis our next greatest achievement.

At the link:

– Sign up to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030

– Download World Hepatitis Day 2016 Resources

– Join Us To Make The Elimination Of Viral Hepatitis Our Next Greatest
Achievement

– Get Involved

Every action is an action towards elimination of viral hepatitis

NOhep, a global movement to eliminate viral hepatitis, will be launched on
WHD2016 to bring people together and provide a platform for people to
speak out, be engaged and take action to ensure global commitments are met
and viral hepatitis is eliminated by 2030. Sign up to join us!
__________________________________________________________________

ABOUT WORLD HEPATITIS DAY 2016

The theme for this year’s global campaign is ELIMINATION.

2016 is a pivotal year for viral hepatitis. At the World Health Assembly
in May, WHO Member States are set to adopt the first ever Elimination
Strategy for Viral Hepatitis, with ambitious targets and a goal to
eliminate hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. This will be the
first time national governments sign up and commit to the goal of
eliminating viral hepatitis.

To mark this historic moment and to leverage this political commitment, we
are using the theme of elimination for WHD 2016, which can be easily
adapted for local use; to achieve elimination, greater awareness,
increased diagnosis and key interventions including universal vaccination,
blood and injection safety, harm reduction and treatment are all needed.
This means every activity that addresses viral hepatitis is a step towards
elimination. In other words, no matter what your plans are to mark WHD, be
it a rally or press briefing or screening events, they can all come under
the theme of elimination.

To elevate the theme of elimination NOhep, a global elimination movement,
will be launched to bring people together and provide a platform for
people to speak out, be engaged and take action to ensure global
commitments are met and viral hepatitis is eliminated by 2030.

In order to achieve the NOhep objective of reaching 300 million by 2030,
we need your help. Whether you do something as large as launching NOhep on
WHD in your country or as simple as signing up to the movement, every
action has an impact. Join us and be part of making the elimination of
viral hepatitis our next greatest achievement.

1. SIGN UP: Log on to www.NOhep.org to sign up to the movement. Please
note that NOhep.org will be officially launched on 28 July

2. UPLOAD YOUR WHD ACTIVITY TO THE MAP OF IMPACT

3. USE WHD MATERIALS IN YOUR COUNTRY

4. ADD NOhep logo to your materials
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

2. Reminder: RFI: Question regarding the use reuse prevention syringes
(RUP) for therapeutic injections as a policy
__________________________________________________________________
ALTAF, Arshad <altafa@who.int>
to: sign.moderator <sign.moderator@gmail.com>
date: Thu, Jul 14, 2016

subject: Question regarding the use reuse prevention syringes (RUP) for
therapeutic injections as a policy
Dear SIGN Colleagues,

I would like to pose a question to everyone and would welcome a response
send directly to me at altafa@who.int

Do we know how many low and middle income countries are using RUPs in the
curative sector as a national policy?

Our colleague Selma Khamassi has informed me that Uganda, Kenya and
Tanzania are the three countries she is aware of.

Any additional information in this regard will be highly appreciated.

Kind regards to everyone.

Arshad
Dr Arshad Altaf, MBBS MPH
Consultant
Injection Safety
Service Delivery and Safety (SDS)
Health Systems and Innovation (HIS)
Room 4163, Tel +41 76 757 9559
World Health Organization
20, Av Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland

E-mail: altafa@who.int
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

3. Abstract: Relationship between sharps disposal containers and
Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals
__________________________________________________________________

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26231552

Am J Infect Control. 2015 Oct 1;43(10):1081-5.
Relationship between sharps disposal containers and Clostridium difficile
infections in acute care hospitals.

Pogorzelska-Maziarz M1.

1Jefferson College of Nursing, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia,
PA. Electronic address: monika.pogorzelska-maziarz@jefferson.edu.

BACKGROUND: Sharps disposal containers are ubiquitous in health care
facilities; however, there is paucity of data on their potential role in
pathogen transmission. This study assessed the relationship between use of
single- use versus reusable sharps containers and rates of Clostridium
difficile infections in a national sample of hospitals.

METHODS: A 2013 survey of 1,990 hospitals collected data on the use of
sharps containers. Responses were linked to the 2012 Medicare Provider
Analysis and Review dataset. Bivariate and multivariable negative binomial
regression were conducted to examine differences in C difficile rates
between hospitals using single-use versus reusable containers.

RESULTS: There were 604 hospitals who completed the survey; of these, 539
provided data on use of sharps containers in 2012 (27% response rate).
Hospitals had, on average, 289 beds (SD ± 203) and were predominantly non-
for-profit (67%) and nonteaching (63%). Most used reusable sharps
containers (72%). In bivariate regression, hospitals using single-use
containers had significantly lower rates of C difficile versus hospitals
using reusable containers (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.846, P = .001).
This relationship persisted in multivariable regression (IRR = 0.870, P =
.003) after controlling for other hospital characteristics.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show a link between use of single-
use sharps containers and lower C difficile rates. Future research should
investigate the potential for environmental contamination of reusable
containers and the role they may play in pathogen transmission.

Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and
Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Clostridium difficile infections; Environmental contamination;
Sharps disposal containers
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

4. Abstract: Towards safe injection practices for prevention of hepatitis
C transmission in South Asia: Challenges and progress
__________________________________________________________________

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27433097

World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jul 7;22(25):5837-52.
Towards safe injection practices for prevention of hepatitis C
transmission in South Asia: Challenges and progress.

Janjua NZ1, Butt ZA1, Mahmood B1, Altaf A1.

1Naveed Zafar Janjua, Clinical Prevention Services, British Columbia
Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4, Canada.

AIM: To summarize the available information about injection use and its
determinants in the South Asian region.

METHODS: We searched published and unpublished literature on injection
safety in South Asia published during 1995-2016 using the keywords
“injection” “unsafe injection” and “immunization injection” and combined
these with each of the countries and/or their respective states or
provinces in South Asia. We used a standardized questionnaire to abstract
the following data from the articles: the annual number of injections per
capita, the proportion of injections administered with a reused syringe or
needle, the distribution of injections with respect to prescribers and
providers and determinants of injection use.

RESULTS: Although information is very limited for certain countries (i.e.,
Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka), healthcare injection use is very common
across South Asia, with cross-country rates ranging from 2.4 to 13.6
injections/ person/year. Furthermore, recent studies show that 5% to 50%
of these injections are provided with reused syringes, thus creating
potential to transmission of blood-borne pathogens. Qualified and
unqualified practitioners, especially in the private sector, are the major
drivers behind injection use, but patients also prefer injections,
especially among the rural, poor or uneducated in certain countries.
According to available data, Pakistan and India have recently taken steps
towards achieving safe injection. Potential interventions include the
introduction of reuse prevention devices, and patient-, community- and
patient/ community and provider-centered interventions to change
population and practitioner behavior.

CONCLUSION: Injection use is common in South Asian countries. Multilevel
interventions aiming at patients, providers and the healthcare system are
needed to reduce injection use and reuse.

KEYWORDS: Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Prescription practices; South Asia;
Unsafe injections

Free PMC Article https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4932219/
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

5. Abstract: Occupational health of home care aides: results of the safe
home care survey
__________________________________________________________________

Free BMJ Open Access Article http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/4/237.long

Occup Environ Med. 2016 Apr;73(4):237-45.
Occupational health of home care aides: results of the safe home care
survey.

Quinn MM1, Markkanen PK1, Galligan CJ1, Sama SR1, Kriebel D1, Gore RJ1,
Brouillette NM1, Okyere D1, Sun C1, Punnett L1, Laramie AK2, Davis L2.

1Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell,
Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
2Occupational Health Surveillance Programme, Massachusetts Department of
Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

OBJECTIVES: In countries with ageing populations, home care (HC) aides are
among the fastest growing jobs. There are few quantitative studies of HC
occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions. The objectives of this
study were to: (1) assess quantitatively the OSH hazards and benefits for
a wide range of HC working conditions, and (2) compare OSH experiences of
HC aides who are employed via different medical and social services
systems in Massachusetts, USA.

METHODS: HC aides were recruited for a survey via agencies that employ
aides and schedule their visits with clients, and through a labour union
of aides employed directly by clients or their families. The questionnaire
included detailed questions about the most recent HC visits, as well as
about individual aides’ OSH experiences.

RESULTS: The study population included 1249 HC aides (634 agency-employed,
615 client-employed) contributing information on 3484 HC visits. Hazards
occurring most frequently related to musculoskeletal strain, exposure to
potentially infectious agents and cleaning chemicals for infection
prevention and experience of violence. Client-hired and agency-hired aides
had similar OSH experiences with a few exceptions, including use of sharps
and experience of verbal violence.

CONCLUSIONS: The OSH experience of HC aides is similar to that of aides in
institutional healthcare settings. Despite OSH challenges, HC aides enjoy
caring for others and the benefits of HC work should be enhanced.
Quantification of HC hazards and benefits is useful to prioritise
resources for the development of preventive interventions and to provide
an evidence base for policy-setting.

Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

Free BMJ Open Access Article http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/4/237.long
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

6. Abstract: Incidence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids
and measures taken by health care workers before and after exposure in
regional hospitals of a developing country: a multicenter study
__________________________________________________________________

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159497

Am J Infect Control. 2015 Oct 1;43(10):1137-8.
Incidence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids and measures
taken by health care workers before and after exposure in regional
hospitals of a developing country: a multicenter study.

Sabermoghaddam M1, Sarbaz M2, Lashkardoost H3, Kaviani A4, Eslami S5,
Rezazadeh J6.

1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Qaem Hospital, School of
Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I.R. Iran.
2Health Information Technology and Medical Records Department, School of
Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad,
I.R. Iran; Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Mashhad
University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I.R. Iran.
3School of Public Health, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences,
Bojnurd, I.R. Iran.
4Imam Ali Hospital, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences,
Bojnurd, I.R. Iran.
5Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University
of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I.R. Iran; Pharmaceutical Research Center,
School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I.R.
Iran; Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center,
University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
6Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, North Khorasan
University of Medical Sciences, Bojnourd, I.R. Iran; Samen al a’eme
Hospital, Social Security Organization, Bojnurd, I.R. Iran. Electronic
address: rezazadeh.1988@gmail.com.
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 health care workers
working in government hospitals in the Northern Khorasan province of Iran.

Exposure to sharp objects was 44% and 31% of participants had a history of
being in contact with blood or body fluids of patients.

Among health care workers who had needlestick injuries, 82 had a positive
hepatitis B surface antibody titer measured after injury.

Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and
Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:
Blood splatter; Needle stick injury; Sharp objects injury; Standard
precautions

PMID: 26159497 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2015.05.010
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

7. Abstract: Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among
active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico
__________________________________________________________________

Free full text http://dx.doi.org/10.7448%2FIAS.19.4.20874

J Int AIDS Soc. 2016 Jul 18;19(4 Suppl 3):20874.
Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty
police officers in Tijuana, Mexico.

Mittal ML1,2, Beletsky L1,3, Patiño E2,4, Abramovitz D1, Rocha T1,
Arredondo J1, Bañuelos A5, Rangel G6,7, Strathdee SA8.

1Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of
California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
2School of Medicine, Universidad Xochicalco, Tijuana, México.
3School of Law & Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern
University, Boston, MA, USA.
4Public Safety Support Department, Dirección Municipal de Salud, Tijuana,
México.
5Department of Planning and Special Projects, Secretaría de Seguridad
Pública Municipal, Tijuana, México.
6Comisión de Salud Fronteriza México-EEUU, Sección México, Tijuana,
México.
7Department of Migrant Health, Secretaría de Salud, México DF, México.
8Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of
California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; sstrathdee@ucsd.edu.

INTRODUCTION: Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick
injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk
for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police
officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who
inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related
arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-
sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of
NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve
occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and
PWID.

METHODS: Tijuana’s Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among
Mexico’s largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-
identified data from SSPM’s 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational
health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was
determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via
generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever
having an occupational NSI.

RESULTS: Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given
the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly
male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers
reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3%
reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported
encountering needles/ syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors
independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently
finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95%
confidence interval (CI): 1.56-5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25;
95% CI: 1.29-3.91), while protective factors included being willing to
contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22-0.69),
and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91).

CONCLUSIONS: Tijuana police face an elevated and unaddressed occupational
NSI burden associated with unsafe syringe-handling practices, exposing
them to substantial risk of HIV and other blood-borne infections. These
findings spurred the development and tailoring of training to reduce NSI
by modifying officer knowledge, attitudes and enforcement practices (e.g.
syringe confiscation) – factors that also impact HIV transmission among
PWID and other members of the community.

KEYWORDS: HIV; harm reduction; law enforcement; occupational accidents;
policing; syringe confiscation; syringe disposal; viral hepatitis

Free full text http://dx.doi.org/10.7448%2FIAS.19.4.20874
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

8. Abstract: HIV Infection Linked to Injection Use of Oxymorphone in
Indiana, 2014–2015
__________________________________________________________________

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1515195
HIV Infection Linked to Injection Use of Oxymorphone in Indiana, 2014–2015

Philip J. Peters, M.D., Pamela Pontones, M.A., Karen W. Hoover, M.D.,
M.P.H., Monita R. Patel, Ph.D., M.P.H., Romeo R. Galang, M.D., M.P.H.,
Jessica Shields, B.S., Sara J. Blosser, Ph.D., Michael W. Spiller, Ph.D.,
Brittany Combs, R.N., William M. Switzer, M.P.H., Caitlin Conrad, B.S.,
Jessica Gentry, M.A., Yury Khudyakov, Ph.D., Dorothy Waterhouse, B.S., S.
Michele Owen, Ph.D., Erika Chapman, M.P.H., Jeremy C. Roseberry, M.A.,
Veronica McCants, M.S.A., Paul J. Weidle, Pharm.D., M.P.H., Dita Broz,
Ph.D., M.P.H., Taraz Samandari, M.D., Ph.D., Jonathan Mermin, M.D.,
M.P.H., Jennifer Walthall, M.D., M.P.H., John T. Brooks, M.D., and Joan M.
Duwve, M.D., M.P.H., for the Indiana HIV Outbreak Investigation Team*
N Engl J Med 2016; 375:229-239July 21, 2016DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1515195

BACKGROUND In January 2015, a total of 11 new diagnoses of human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were reported in a small community
in Indiana. We investigated the extent and cause of the outbreak and
implemented control measures.

METHODS We identified an outbreak-related case as laboratory-confirmed HIV
infection newly diagnosed after October 1, 2014, in a person who either
resided in Scott County, Indiana, or was named by another case patient as
a syringe-sharing or sexual partner. HIV polymerase (pol) sequences from
case patients were phylogenetically analyzed, and potential risk factors
associated with HIV infection were ascertained.

RESULTS From November 18, 2014, to November 1, 2015, HIV infection was
diagnosed in 181 case patients. Most of these patients (87.8%) reported
having injected the extended-release formulation of the prescription
opioid oxymorphone, and 92.3% were coinfected with hepatitis C virus.
Among 159 case patients who had an HIV type 1 pol gene sequence, 157
(98.7%) had sequences that were highly related, as determined by
phylogenetic analyses. Contact tracing investigations led to the
identification of 536 persons who were named as contacts of case patients;
468 of these contacts (87.3%) were located, assessed for risk, tested for
HIV, and, if infected, linked to care. The number of times a contact was
named as a syringe- sharing partner by a case patient was significantly
associated with the risk of HIV infection (adjusted risk ratio for each
time named, 1.9; P<0.001). In response to this outbreak, a public health
emergency was declared on March 26, 2015, and a syringe-service program in
Indiana was established for the first time.

CONCLUSIONS Injection-drug use of extended-release oxymorphone within a
network of persons who inject drugs in Indiana led to the introduction and
rapid transmission of HIV. (Funded by the state government of Indiana and
others.)

Supported (financially and in kind) by the state government of Indiana,
the Scott and Clark County Health Departments, and the Department of
Health and Human Services.

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text
of this article at NEJM.org.

The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and
do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC). The use of trade names and commercial sources is for
identification only and does not imply endorsement by the CDC.
This article was updated on July 21, 2016, at NEJM.org.

SOURCE INFORMATION

From the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral
Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, Atlanta (P.J.P., K.W.H., M.R.P., R.R.G., M.W.S., W.M.S., Y.K.,
S.M.O., V.M., P.J.W., D.B., T.S., J.M., J.T.B.); and the Indiana State
Department of Health (P.P., S.J.B., C.C., J.G., E.C., J.C.R., J.W.,
J.M.D.), Indiana University School of Medicine (J.W.), and Indiana
University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health (J.M.D.),
Indianapolis, Clark County Health Department, Jeffersonville (J.S., D.W.),
and Scott County Health Department, Scottsburg (B.C.) — all in Indiana.
Address reprint requests to Dr. Peters at HIV Testing and Biomedical
Interventions Activity, Epidemiology Branch, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, Mailstop E-45, Atlanta, GA 30329, or
at pjpeters@cdc.gov.

A complete list of the members of the Indiana HIV Outbreak Investigation
Team is provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org.
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

9. Abstract: Use of a simulation intervention to examine differences in
nursing students’ hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors
__________________________________________________________________

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27429413

Nurse Educ Today. 2016 Jul 17;45:96-101.
Use of a simulation intervention to examine differences in nursing
students’ hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors.

Konicki T1, Miller E2.

1Wright State University, College of Nursing and Health, 3640 Colonel
Glenn Hwy, Dayton, Ohio 45435, United States. Electronic address:
tara.konicki@wright.edu.
2University of Cincinnati, College of Nursing, Cincinnati, Ohio, United
States.

BACKGROUND: Although hand hygiene remains an essential aspect of quality
care, adherence to best patient safety practices continues to pose major
challenges.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to examine hand hygiene
knowledge, beliefs, practices, perceived importance and behaviors using
Social Cognitive Theory and simulation-based intervention.

DESIGN: Participants were taken from a convenience sample of 131
undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a nursing fundamentals course
at an urban university in the midwestern United States, and then randomly
assigned to their respective groups. Using an experimental pretest-
posttest design, control and intervention groups received the same lecture
pertaining to hand hygiene and 3 data collection points where van de
Mortel’s Hand Hygiene Questionnaire (HHQ) was administered. In addition,
the intervention group viewed a 6.5min video related to healthcare
acquired infection and participated in 4 simulated situations requiring
hand hygiene, based on World Health Organization guidelines. For all
students, the hand hygiene technique was assessed through the use of Glo
Germ, followed by handwashing and photography under ultraviolet light
(posttest only). Image illumination was analyzed using image processing
software. Microbiological sampling plates (pretest-posttest) were assessed
quantitatively by colony counting.

RESULTS: Study findings did not support differences in the intervention
group for the 5 hypothesized relationships. Social desirability responding
and negative item confusion were found to occur with the HHQ in the
student population. There was a significant difference in the UV hand
photographs, with students in the afternoon having lower values than
students in the morning.

CONCLUSIONS: Given the study results, there were no definitive educational
recommendations to teach hand hygiene to nursing students. Future research
should continue to further examine multi-focal modalities to enhance
adherence to hand hygiene practices, as well as control for extraneous
mediating or moderating variables found in educational settings.

Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

10. Abstract: Clean Water for Developing Countries
__________________________________________________________________

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26247291

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng. 2015;6:217-46.
Clean Water for Developing Countries.

Pandit AB1, Kumar JK.

1Department of Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical
Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, India; email:
ab.pandit@ictmumbai.edu.in.

Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a
distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing
countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a
wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water
bodies and affecting human lives.

Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound
methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased
worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration
methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and
arsenic removal technologies.

Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant
xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed
indigenously are methods mentioned here.

By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods
relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and
emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we
highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and
development and scaling up of these processes.

This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural
populations in developing countries. It describes various water
disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy
efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in
reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in
drinking water to acceptable limits.

KEYWORDS: SODIS; drinking; filtration; hybrid; pollutants; rain water
harvesting
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

11. No Abstract: Development of an Intervention to Increase Occupational
Postexposure Prophylaxis in Sub-Saharan Africa
__________________________________________________________________

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27425796

J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2016 Jun 11. pii: S1055-3290(16)30078-4.
Development of an Intervention to Increase Occupational Postexposure
Prophylaxis in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Courtenay-Quirk C, Selenic D, Lahuerta M, Kassa G, Murrman M, Bock N.

KEYWORDS: HIV prevention; infection control; needlestick injuries;
occupational injuries; postexposure prophylaxis

Extract

Bloodborne pathogen exposures (BPE) through sharps injuries or splashes
are common, and result in considerable health risk to health care workers
(HCW). Each year, approximately three million HCW worldwide experience
injuries with a contaminated sharp object (Pruss-Ustun, Rapiti, & Hutin,
2005). Of those, approximately 90% occur in developing countries (World
Health Organization [WHO], 2003). In 2000 alone, BPE resulted in an
estimated 66,000 hepatitis B infections, 16,000 hepatitis C infections,
and 1,000 HIV infections worldwide (Pruss-Ustun et al., 2005).
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

12. News

– Pakistan: Hepatitis kills 400 people daily on average

– South Africa: Nurse seeks HIV compensation after needle jab

– USA: Needle Sharing Causes Rapid HIV Transmission in Rural U.S.

– North Carolina USA: Health Dept. sets up used needle drop, offers clean
ones

– Hong Kong: Mainland medical waste found at Lantau beach

– New Mexico USA: State Health Department: Rio Arriba woman diagnosed with
wound botulism

-India: CB-CID detects illegal sale of 230kg bio-medical waste

Selected news items reprinted under the fair use doctrine of international
copyright law: http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html
__________________________________________________________________

https://tinyurl.com/js5xy7n
Pakistan: Hepatitis kills 400 people daily on average

By Muhammad Qasim, The News International, Islamabad Pakistan (27.07.16)

Awareness among public and prompt response must for prevention and control

Rawalpindi

An estimated 20 million people in Pakistan are infected with hepatitis C
or hepatitis B virus and the number of patients is continuously on the
rise at an alarming rate while the infections kill nearly 400 people daily
on average.

Various studies reveal that the number of patients infected with hepatitis
C virus in Pakistan is around 15 million while nearly five million people
are suffering from hepatitis B. Hepatitis as a whole claims around 150,000
lives in Pakistan every year, the number based on data of reported cases.

It is believed that every year, well over 150,000 new patients of
hepatitis are added to the existing load of patients in the country. Viral
hepatitis affects 400 million people globally. Every year, six to 10
million people are newly infected with the hepatitis virus around the
globe.

Hepatitis B and C are both ‘silent viruses’ and because many people (about
80 per cent) feel no symptoms, you could be infected for years without
symptoms. If left untreated, both the hepatitis B and C viruses can lead
to liver scarring (cirrhosis), ascites (accumulation of fluid in the
abdominal cavity), bleeding, coma, liver cancer, liver failure and death.
Therefore, it is important to get tested as soon as possible.

Head of Community Medicine at CMH Lahore Medical College Professor Dr.
Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry expressed this while talking to ‘The News’ in
connection with the sixth official WHO World Hepatitis Day being marked on
July 28 around the globe.

He said the theme of World Hepatitis Day this year is ‘Know hepatitis. Act
now.’ And through it, the WHO calls on policy makers, local authorities,
civil society, public, media and other stakeholders to raise awareness and
encourage people to know hepatitis and act now. The vision of eliminating
hepatitis as a public health threat can be achieved, if people and
countries affected by this disease are better equipped and enabled to
“know hepatitis” and “act now”, he said.

Talking of the increasing number of hepatitis patients in Pakistan, Dr.
Ashraf said the main reasons for rising incidence of Viral Hepatitis C in
Pakistan are non-availability of vaccine against hepatitis C, use of
unscreened blood transfusions, re-use of needles and syringes by health
care providers, sharing of needles by IV drug users, use of improper/
unsterilised surgical and dental instruments in operation theatres/dental
clinics, road side dentists and barbers, administration of unnecessary
injections, bad medical practice and quackery.

The other contributing factors are lack of audits and monitoring system in
hospitals and poor management hierarchy, he said. He added that pre-
operative screening of patients for hepatitis B and C is not performed in
routine and rate of incidence of hepatitis C due to dialysis is much
higher in Pakistan. The causes could be negligence in disinfecting
dialysis equipment and reusing vials between different patients. The
improper disposal of hospital waste is one of the most common contributing
factors associated with hepatitis C. Besides this, drug abusers and sex
workers are also common factors in acquiring hepatitis C, he said.

To a query, he said the high risk groups are injecting drug users, health
care workers (due to needle stick injury), newborn to hepatitis C infected
mothers, persons who frequently use blood or blood products and persons
with multiple sexual partners and with high-risk sexual behaviour, elderly
people and those living with HIV.

Talking of the remedies, he said early diagnosis of disease in hepatitis
patients may help controlling the situation however, for it there must be
sufficient awareness among public on signs and symptoms of viral
hepatitis.

Dr. Ashraf said the main signs and symptoms of viral hepatitis are
fatigue, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, jaundice (yellowing of the
skin and eyes), abdominal pain and dark urine/bright stools, depression
and joint pains in case of hepatitis C. The most frequent symptom of
hepatitis is that people feel very tired. However, blood test is required
for confirmation of diagnosis of viral hepatitis, he said.

He said that about 90 per cent of healthy adults who are infected with
hepatitis B virus (HBV) recover and be completely rid of the virus within
six months, but 10% become chronic carriers of the disease; whereas in
case of hepatitis C, four out of five people (55 to 85%) develop a chronic
infection, which may cause cirrhosis and liver cancer after 15-30 years.

He explained that there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C, however,
90 per cent cases of hepatitis C can be completely cured of the virus
within 3-6 months. Recently, new antiviral drugs have been developed.
“These medicines, called direct antiviral agents (DAA) are more effective,
safer and better tolerated than the older therapies and treatment is
shorter (usually 12 weeks).”

He said that appropriate treatment of hepatitis B and C can prevent the
development of major life threatening complications of chronic liver
disease; cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

In case of liver failure, ultimate treatment is liver transplantation. In
Pakistan an estimated 2.5 million patients need urgent liver
transplantation but most of them cannot afford high cost procedure. Lack
of trained surgeons, long queues and strict regulation regarding blood
relation with donors are hindering surgeries in Pakistan, said Dr. Ashraf.

To a query, he said the awareness is inexplicably low and the majority,
over 95 per cent of those infected is unaware of the aspects of the
disease. “Creation of awareness among people through mass media about
measures to prevent hepatitis is a need of the hour to check the growing
incidence of fatal disease.”

Talking of preventive measures, he said people should avoid administration
of unnecessary injections and choose oral medications where possible and
should also avoid drips and surgeries unnecessarily and should follow
careful dental treatment, hand hygiene, safe cleaning of equipment, safe
handling and disposal of sharps and waste, use condoms correctly, use only
screened blood for transfusion, avoid roadside dentists for dental
treatment and get vaccinated their children against hepatitis B.

He said people should not share toothbrushes, razors, needles, or
unsterilised medical equipment. When a mother with hepatitis B gives birth
to her baby, vaccination (active and passive) in the hours after birth
protects nine out of ten babies from becoming infected, said Dr. Ashraf.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

https://tinyurl.com/zco7e26
South Africa: Nurse seeks HIV compensation after needle jab

Tania Broughton, Independent Online, South Africa (25.07.16)

Durban – A Durban nurse says she is still battling to be properly
compensated after she contracted HIV 13 years ago from a needle stick
injury to her left thumb while attending to a patient at the private
hospital where she worked.

The nurse – who cannot be named because of her HIV status – says the
hospital’s insurer, the Compensation Fund, deemed that she was only 15%
disabled, and paid her accordingly, and is now rejecting her appeals to
reconsider because of her declining health and inability to work.

File picture: Esteban Felix. Credit: AP

The fund has launched an application in the Pietermaritzburg High Court,
seeking an order declaring that it has fulfilled all its obligations to
her.

But the nurse, with the assistance of Durban’s Legal Resources Centre, is
fighting back.

In her affidavit, she says she had worked at the hospital for 10 years
when, in September 2003, while on night duty, she sustained the injury
while administering insulin to the patient.

She should have been given prophylaxis treatment within two hours, but
none was available.

She fell ill that December and when she was tested the following January,
it came back positive. At that stage her CD 4 count was 697.

Her first claim to the fund was rejected. A tribunal was set up only in
2006. During the hearing, she said, the fund’s attorney argued that she
had contracted HIV through sex.

The tribunal finally ruled that it would pay for the diagnostic
procedures, but any other treatment would only be payable on confirmation
of the source.

The nurse said after constant badgering, a second tribunal was established
in 2009 when she learnt that her patient had never been tested because she
was critically ill at the time (she later died) and her family had refused
permission.

Disappointment

“The tribunal expressed its disappointment at this… and in view of this
omission and the evidence, found in my favour,” she said. Finally, in
2010, she received confirmation that she was to be compensated for 15%
permanent disability and was advised “should your condition deteriorate to
the point of advanced Aids or poor response to antiretroviral treatment,
your PD (permanent disability) shall be adjusted to 100%”.

“Later that year my health deteriorated. Initially the fund refused to
authorise ARV treatment because my CD 4 count was above 200, at 280.

“My doctor intervened and pointed to national and international guidelines
which state treatment must commence if the count is under 350,” she said.

Her condition continued to worsen and, by 2012, her doctors reported that
she was suffering from chronic depression and ARV side effects.

In letters to the fund recommending that she be declared 100% disabled,
they said she was now “severely functionally disabled” and was also
suffering from peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage) and could barely
stand.

But the fund would not budge, saying the neuropathy was not a side effect
of HIV and her CD 4 counts were acceptable.

In his affidavit, fund administrator Shadrack Mkhonto said the nurse had
been paid a lump sum of R55 500 and it was paying for medicine.

“She is dissatisfied and has complained to the fund, the minister of
labour and even the president.”

He said the 15% was based on the fact that she had a CD4 count of 1 114,
“equivalent of a normal person”, at the time.

“A person can only be found 100% disabled should they acquire Aids or have
a very poor response to medication.”

Mkhonto said the nurse had not properly appealed against the award and her
claim had “thus prescribed”.

The matter is pending before the court.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

https://tinyurl.com/gvjrcax
USA: Needle Sharing Causes Rapid HIV Transmission in Rural U.S.

Monthly Prescribing Reference, HealthDay News, USA (22.07.16)

Indiana case offers a lesson for other rural communities

HealthDay News — The U.S. prescription drug abuse epidemic has increased
the risk of HIV outbreaks in rural and suburban communities, where up to
now the virus has posed little threat, according to a report published in
the July 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Needle-sharing among prescription drug addicts created an outbreak in
rural Scott County, Indiana, Public health officials report that HIV was
diagnosed in 181 individuals there between November 2014 and November
2015.

More frequent needle-sharing was related to a higher risk, the study
authors said, with the number of times a contact was named as a syringe-
sharing partner significantly associated with risk of HIV infection
(adjusted risk ratio for each time named, 1.9; P<0.001).

“It was the largest outbreak that has occurred in the United States since
the introduction of HIV treatment,” lead author Philip Peters, MD, a
medical officer with the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention at the U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, told HealthDay. “This
particular community is rural and also very poor, and there wasn’t really
any access to clean syringes,” Peters continued. “If persons started to
inject drugs, they didn’t have many options other than to share syringes.
That is probably a factor that caused such rapid transmission of HIV.”

Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1515195
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

https://tinyurl.com/h28tvl7
North Carolina USA: Health Dept. sets up used needle drop, offers clean
ones

By Tammy Grubb, News & Observer, North Carolina USA (20.07.16)

Safe Syringe Program has given bags of 20 needles to five people since
April

Drug users, others can deposit old needles in Chapel Hill, Hillsborough
dropboxes

Health Department program aimed at reducing HIV, hepatitis transmission,
better public safety

Photo: Orange County Health Department officials are collecting dirty
needles in the white, metal boxes located in the lobby of the health
clinic inside the Whitted Building, 300 W. Tryon St. in Hillsborough.
Another box is located at the Southern Human Services Center health
clinic, 2501 Homestead Road in Chapel Hill.

A new state law has allowed the Orange County Health Department to go
public with its Safe Syringe Program.

Residents can drop off their dirty needles at the health department and
pick up a brown paper bag containing 20 clean needles, condoms and
information about HIV, hepatitis, safe sex and drug use. Orange County
Health Department officials are collecting dirty needles in the white,
metal boxes located in the lobby of the health clinic inside the Whitted
Building, 300 W. Tryon St. in Hillsborough.Residents can drop off their
dirty needles at the health department and pick up a brown paper bag
containing 20 clean needles, condoms and information about HIV, hepatitis,
safe sex and drug use.

Another box is located at the Southern Human Services Center health
clinic, 2501 Homestead Road in Chapel Hill.

A new state law has allowed the Orange County Health Department to go
public with its Safe Syringe Program. Residents can drop off their dirty
needles at the health department and pick up a brown paper bag containing
20 clean needles, condoms and information about HIV, hepatitis, safe sex
and drug use. Tammy Grubb tgrubb@newsobserver.com

The Orange County Health Department has been quietly exchanging needles
for drug users and diabetic patients since April.

The Safe Syringe Program only became official when Gov. Pat McCrory signed
a new state law July 11 outlining the requirements under which local
agencies could offer needle, or syringe, exchanges.

It’s exciting to be able to offer a program that’s addressing “a large but
hidden and stigmatized public health issue,” said Robin Gasparini, county
nursing supervisor.

“Having this law passed allows us to really go out there and actively
partner with the community about our program and share information,” she
said, “and I think it’s really critical for people to know that there’s a
safe avenue.”

They are still working with the state to amend a portion of the law that
prohibits using public money to buy needles, hypodermic syringes and other
injection supplies.

The law also requires programs to address the spread of HIV, hepatitis and
other bloodborne diseases; reduce needle-stick injuries to public safety
workers; and encourage drug users to seek treatment.

The N.C. Harm Reduction Coalition reports that one out of every three
officers will be stuck accidentally with a needle during their careers,
potentially exposing them to HIV and Hepatitis B and C. Roughly 28 percent
will be stuck more than once, the group reported.

Gasparini noted North Carolina has had a significant problem with
hepatitis, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting
the number of cases had increased more than 200 percent between 2007 and
2011. More than half of the hepatitis transmissions reported are traced to
shared needles, she said.

Low-income residents and those with chronic illnesses or who face
stereotypes when buying needles through a pharmacy also may reuse needles,
she said, which raises the risk of infections and bruising.

The new law also is expected to help officers stay safe as they patrol the
streets, Chapel Hill Police Chief Chris Blue said.

“Law enforcement officers, I think, pretty universally support the notion
that a needle exchange program can help people get directed to resources
they need to perhaps address their addiction,” he said, “and can also
reduce the likelihood that dirty needles are out there that can harm
people out in the community or officers that may encounter users.”

Five people have visited the Hillsborough and Chapel Hill clinics since
April to drop off dirty needles and pick up a bag of 20 clean ones,
Gasparini said. Now, dirty needles can be dropped into white metal boxes
located in both buildings.

They aren’t tracking personal details or the reasons someone might trade
their needles, she said, but they do know at least one client is diabetic
and has had trouble buying needles through a pharmacy. Two others who
picked up needles also got tested for HIV, she said.

Law enforcement officers “play a huge role in helping us build trust with
our clients,” Gasparini said. “I would ask for their support to help us
connect to the community and help the community members connect to our
program based on need.”

The state law requires programs to include educational materials about the
prevention of overdoses; HIV, AIDS and viral hepatitis transmission; and
drug abuse. The materials also must address treatment and referrals for
mental illness and substance abuse.

Business cards with information about Orange County’s Safe Syringe Program
have been sitting on the front desk of the Orange County Sheriff’s Office
for months. The Carrboro Police Department also has received the cards,
police spokesman Capt. Chris Atack said.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

www.ejinsight.com/20160713-mainland-medical-waste-found-at-lantau-beach/

Jul 13, 2016 10:21am
Hong Kong: Mainland medical waste found at Lantau beach

EJ Insite, Hong Kong, China (13.07.16)

Lantau Island has seen large amounts of medical waste wash up on a beach,
posing a health risk to local residents, according to a concern group.

The medical waste is believed to have originated in China’s Gaungdong
province, RTHK cited non-governmental organization Designing Hong Kong and
Plastic Free Seas as saying.

The group said it spotted potentially poisonous and hazardous waste such
as syringes, vials and pills at Sam Pak Wan in Discovery Bay.

The markings on them indicate that they came from the mainland.

The group has submitted waste samples to the Environmental Protection
Department, urging it to investigate the matter.

Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying said over the weekend that he will take up
with Guandong authorities the issue of marine trash flowing into Hong
Kong.

RA/RC
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

https://tinyurl.com/zgqmavo
New Mexico USA: State Health Department: Rio Arriba woman diagnosed with
wound botulism

By J.R. Oppenheim, KOB4 TV, New Mexico USA (13.07.16)

A 33-year-old woman in Rio Arriba County has contracted wound botulism,
the New Mexico Department of Health reported Wednesday afternoon.

The Health Department opened an investigation into the case. In a
statement, the department said the woman is a heron user and they believe
the infection source to be a soiled skin injection site, a contaminated
needle or contaminated heroin.

The woman is hospitalized, the statement said. “We are asking healthcare
providers to carefully consider wound botulism in patients who are showing
symptoms, especially if they have a history of injection drug use,” Health
Secretary Lynn Gallagher said in the statement. “People who inject drugs
should be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with wound botulism
and seek immediate medical attention if they begin to exhibit any
symptoms.”

Botulism is rare but potentially life-threatening, the statement said.
Symptoms include blurred or double vision, dropping eyelids, slurred
speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness or paralysis,
and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. It could lead to
paralysis in the respiratory muscles, arms, legs and eventual death.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

https://tinyurl.com/j4ggxl7
India: CB-CID detects illegal sale of 230kg bio-medical waste

By SV KRISHNA CHAITANYA, The New Indian Express, India (15.07.16)

Photo: Bio-medical waste that was illegally sold to private firms by city
hospitals | special arrangement

CHENNAI: INVESTIGATION into some city hospitals, including noted ones,
selling bio-medical waste instead of treating and disposing of them safely
as is mandatory, has zeroed in on a private firm that had bought over 200
kg waste from a leading hospital.

The CB-CID team, probing the case following a direction from the southern
bench of National Green Tribunal (NGT), has submitted the preliminary
investigation report to the State government. It might be submitted to the
NGT either on Friday or on July 25, when the case comes up for hearing.

Based on information obtained through a Right to Information (RTI) query,
Express had reported how some leading hospitals in Chennai and its
neighbourhood, both government and private, were selling the waste instead
of disposing of them scientifically.

A senior CB-CID officer told Express that between October and December
last year, Kanchi Kamakoti Child’s Trust Hospital had sold around 230 kg
of recyclable plastic waste to Kalikamba Enterprises in Tondiarpet run by
one Paneerselvam. This is in contravention of the rules that mandates all
hospitals to enter into an agreement with the Common Treatment Facility
Provider (CTFP) appointed by the State government to dispose of segregated
solid biomedical waste. No hospital is authorised to sell biomedical waste
to a third party. Sources said the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
(TNPCB) had raided the hospital and the godown of the private firm.
Following this, the waste was returned to the hospital, which in turn sent
it to GJ Multiclave, one of the companies authorised to handle bio-medical
waste treatment.

When contacted, CB-CID DSP S Sathya Moorthy said the instructions were to
probe only Child’s Trust Hospital. “We will broaden the scope of the
investigation if the tribunal directs us to do so.”

Meanwhile, officials from the Directorate of Medical Education (DME)
conducted inspections of hospitals affiliated to medical colleges and a
separate report would be submitted to the NGT.

As per official records, 617 hospitals, which signed MoUs with two common
biomedical treatment facilities in Chennai and three in neighbouring
districts, having bed-strength of 31,412 but generate just 9,666 kg of
bio-medical waste per day – a paltry 307 gm per bed per day – far less
than the conservative estimates of both the Union Ministry of Environment
and Forests and the TNPCB. Even the new Bio Medical Waste Management Rules
2016 puts a figure of 1-2 kg of solid bio-medical waste generated per
patient per day in a hospital.

This has raised questions as to whether this waste purchased from
hospitals is being repackaged and returned to the stores.
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

New WHO Injection Safety Guidelines

WHO is urging countries to transition, by 2020, to the exclusive use of
the new “smart” syringes, except in a few circumstances in which a syringe
that blocks after a single use would interfere with the procedure.

The new guideline is:

WHO Guideline on the use of Safety-Engineered Syringes for Intramuscular,
Intradermal and Subcutaneous Injections in Health Care

It is available for free download or viewing at this link:
www.who.int/injection_safety/global-campaign/injection-safety_guidline.pdf

PDF Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader [620 KB]
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________
Making all injections safe brochure

This is an illustrated summary brochure for the general public.

pdf, 554kb [6 pages]

www.who.int/injection_safety/global-campaign/injection-safety_brochure.pdf
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

SIGN Meeting 2015

The Safe Injection Global Network SIGN meeting was held on 23-24 February
2015 at WHO Headquarters in Geneva Switzerland

The main topic of the meeting was the new injection safety policy
recommendation and developing the appropriate strategies for
implementation in countries worldwide.

A report of the meeting will be posted ASAP
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________
* SAFETY OF INJECTIONS brief yourself at: www.injectionsafety.org

A fact sheet on injection safety is available at:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs231/en/index.html

* Visit the WHO injection safety website and the SIGN Alliance Secretariat
at: http://www.who.int/injection_safety/en/

* Download the WHO Best Practices for Injections and Related Procedures
Toolkit March 2010 [pdf 2.47Mb]:
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599252_eng.pdf

Use the Toolbox at: http://www.who.int/injection_safety/toolbox/en/

Get SIGN files on the web at: http://signpostonline.info/signfiles-2 get
SIGNpost archives at: http://signpostonline.info/archives-by-year

Like on Facebook: http://facebook.com/SIGN.Moderator

The SIGN Secretariat, the Department of Health Systems Policies and
Workforce, WHO, Avenue Appia 20, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Facsimile: +41 22 791 4836 E- mail: sign@who.int
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________
All members of the SIGN Forum are invited to submit messages, comment on
any posting, or to use the forum to request technical information in
relation to injection safety.

The comments made in this forum are the sole responsibility of the writers
and does not in any way mean that they are endorsed by any of the
organizations and agencies to which the authors may belong.

Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and
does not imply endorsement.

The SIGN Forum welcomes new subscribers who are involved in injection
safety.

* Subscribe or unsubscribe by email: signmoderator@googlegroups.com

The SIGNpost Website is http://SIGNpostOnline.info

The SIGNpost website provides an archive of all SIGNposts, meeting
reports, field reports, documents, images such as photographs, posters,
signs and symbols, and video.
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

The SIGN Internet Forum was established at the initiative of the World
Health Organization’s Department of Essential Health Technologies.

The SIGN Secretariat home is the Service Delivery and Safety (SDS) Health
Systems and Innovation (HIS) at WHO HQ, Geneva Switzerland.

The SIGN Forum is moderated by Allan Bass and is hosted on GoogleGroups

Subscribe or unsubscribe by email: signmoderator@googlegroups.com
__________________________________________________________________

Comments are closed.