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SIGNpost 00815

*SAFE INJECTION GLOBAL NETWORK* SIGNPOST

Post00815 Brochure + Abstracts + News 19 August 2015

CONTENTS
1. Abstract: Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Areas
with a High Prevalence of HCV in the Republic of Korea in 2013
2. Abstract: Healthcare waste management research: A structured analysis
and review (2005-2014)
3. Abstract: Legal regulation of the management of waste
4. Abstract: Relationship between sharps disposal containers and
Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals
5. Abstract: Patient Preferences for Injectable Treatments for Multiple
Sclerosis in the United States: A Discrete-Choice Experiment
6. Abstract: The Use of ShotBlocker for Reducing the Pain and Anxiety
Associated With Intramuscular Injection: A Randomized, Placebo
Controlled Study
7. News
– Canada: In need of collecting needles
– Canada: Recent proposal would see needle disposal box at west entrance
to St. Thomas city hall
– Sharps disposal container re-use may help spread pathogens
– Ebola: Only two Ebola cases reported in past week, but risks remain:
WHO

The web edition of SIGNpost is online at:
http://signpostonline.info/archives/1883

More information follows at the end of this SIGNpost!

Please send your requests, notes on progress and activities, articles,
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Visit the WHO injection safety website and the SIGN Alliance Secretariat
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and get updates on your device!
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

Making all injections safe brochure

This is an illustrated summary brochure for the general public [PDF 554kb]

www.who.int/injection_safety/global-campaign/injection-safety_brochure.pdf
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

1. Abstract: Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Areas
with a High Prevalence of HCV in the Republic of Korea in 2013
__________________________________________________________________
http://www.gutnliver.org/journal/view.html?doi=10.5009/gnl14403 Free PDF

Gut Liver. 2015 Aug 11.

Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Areas with a High
Prevalence of HCV in the Republic of Korea in 2013.

Sohn HS1, Kim JR2, Ryu SY3, Lee YJ4, Lee MJ5, Min HJ6, Lee J7, Choi HY8,
Song YJ9, Ki M8.

1Department of Preventive Medicine, Inje University College of Medicine,
Busan, Korea.
2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School
of Medicine, Jinju, Korea.
3Department of Preventive Medicine, Chosun University Medical School,
Gwangju, Korea.
4Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital,
Busan, Korea.
5Department of Health and Medical Administration, Suncheon Jeil College,
Suncheon, Korea.
6Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of
Medicine, Jinju, Korea.
7Department of Internal Medicine, Chosun University Medical School,
Gwangju, Korea.
8Department of Cancer Control and Policy, Graduate School of Cancer
Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.
9Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Eulji University,
Daejeon, Korea.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in
Busan, Gyeongnam, and Jeonnam Provinces in Korea is more than twice the
national average. This study aimed to examine whether demographic and
lifestyle characteristics are associated with HCV infection in these
areas.

METHODS: A case control study was performed at three study hospitals. HCV
cases were matched with two controls for sex and age. Patient controls
were selected from non-HCV patients at the same hospital. Healthy controls
were subjects participating in medical checkups. Conditional logistic
regression models were used.

RESULTS: A total of 234 matched-case and patient- and healthy-control
pairs were analyzed. The significant risk factors for both controls were
sharing razors (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.39 and 3.29, respectively)
and having more than four lifetime sexual partners (aOR, 2.15 and 6.89,
respectively). Contact dockworkers (aOR, 1.91) and tattoos (aOR, 2.20)
were significant risk factors for the patient controls. Transfusion (aOR,
5.38), a bloody operation (aOR, 5.02), acupuncture (aOR, 2.08), and
piercing (aOR, 5.95) were significant risk factors for the healthy
controls. Needle stick injuries and intravenous drug abuse were
significant in the univariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: More education concerning the dangers of sharing razors,
tattoos and piercings is required to prevent HCV infection. More attention
should be paid to needle stick injuries in hospitals and the community.

KEYWORDS: Case-control studies; Hepacivirus; Korea; Risk factors

Free full text http://pdf.medrang.co.kr/ekjg/ekjg_1439254419.pdf [292 KB]
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

2. Abstract: Healthcare waste management research: A structured analysis
and review (2005-2014)
__________________________________________________________________
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268601

Waste Manag Res. 2015 Aug 12. pii: 0734242X15594248.

Healthcare waste management research: A structured analysis and review
(2005-2014).

Thakur V1, Ramesh A2.

1Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,
Uttarakhand, India ervikythakur@gmail.com ervikasece_143@yahoo.co.in.
2Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,
Uttarakhand, India.

The importance of healthcare waste management in preserving the
environment and protecting the public cannot be denied. Past research has
dealt with various issues in healthcare waste management and disposal,
which spreads over various journals, pipeline research disciplines and
research communities. Hence, this article analyses this scattered
knowledge in a systematic manner, considering the period between January
2005 and July 2014.

The purpose of this study is to: (i) identify the trends in healthcare
waste management literature regarding journals published; (ii) main topics
of research in healthcare waste management; (iii) methodologies used in
healthcare waste management research; (iv) areas most frequently
researched by researchers; and (v) determine the scope of future research
in healthcare waste management. To this end, the authors conducted a
systematic review of 176 articles on healthcare waste management taken
from the following eight esteemed journals: International Journal of
Environmental Health Research, International Journal of Healthcare Quality
Assurance, Journal of Environmental Management, Journal of Hazardous
Material, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, Resources,
Conservations and Recycling, Waste Management, and Waste Management &
Research.

The authors have applied both quantitative and qualitative approaches for
analysis, and results will be useful in the following ways: (i) results
will show importance of healthcare waste management in healthcare
operations; (ii) findings will give a comparative view of the various
publications; (c) study will shed light on future research areas.

© The Author(s) 2015.

KEYWORDS: Waste management; environment; hazardous waste; incineration;
medical waste; medical waste disposal
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

3. Abstract: Legal regulation of the management of waste
__________________________________________________________________
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266452

Br J Nurs. 2015 Aug 13;24(15):796-7.

Legal regulation of the management of waste.

Griffith R1.

1Senior Lecturer in Health Law, College of Human and Health Sciences,
Swansea Universit.

Healthcare providers such as hospitals and clinics have a duty of care
under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and its regulations to ensure
that the waste they produce does not cause pollution or present a hazard
to health.

Nurses are well placed to ensure that the trust they work for discharge
that duty.

In this article, Richard Griffith outlines the legislation regulating the
safe management and disposal of waste and considers how the law applies to
nurses.

KEYWORDS:Controlled waste; Duty of care; Hazardous waste; Safe management
and disposal; Sharps
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

4. Abstract: Relationship between sharps disposal containers and
Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals
__________________________________________________________________
http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(15)00667-7/abstract

Relationship between sharps disposal containers and Clostridium difficile
infections in acute care hospitals

Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, PhD, MPHcorrespondenceemail
Jefferson College of Nursing, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia,
PA

Published Online: July 28, 2015

Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof

Article has an altmetric score of 9

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2015.06.007

Highlights

•This study assessed the relationship between use of single-use versus
reusable sharps containers and rates of Clostridium difficile infections
in acute care.

•Hospitals using single-use containers had significantly lower rates of
Clostridium difficile versus hospitals using reusable containers.

•This is the first study to show a link between use of single-use sharps
containers and lower Clostridium difficile rates.

Background Sharps disposal containers are ubiquitous in health care
facilities; however, there is paucity of data on their potential role in
pathogen transmission. This study assessed the relationship between use of
single- use versus reusable sharps containers and rates of Clostridium
difficile infections in a national sample of hospitals.

Methods A 2013 survey of 1,990 hospitals collected data on the use of
sharps containers. Responses were linked to the 2012 Medicare Provider
Analysis and Review dataset. Bivariate and multivariable negative binomial
regression were conducted to examine differences in C difficile rates
between hospitals using single-use versus reusable containers.

Results There were 604 hospitals who completed the survey; of these, 539
provided data on use of sharps containers in 2012 (27% response rate).
Hospitals had, on average, 289 beds (SD ± 203) and were predominantly non-
for-profit (67%) and nonteaching (63%). Most used reusable sharps
containers (72%). In bivariate regression, hospitals using single-use
containers had significantly lower rates of C difficile versus hospitals
using reusable containers (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.846, P = .001).
This relationship persisted in multivariable regression (IRR = 0.870, P =
.003) after controlling for other hospital characteristics.

Conclusion This is the first study to show a link between use of single-
use sharps containers and lower C difficile rates. Future research should
investigate the potential for environmental contamination of reusable
containers and the role they may play in pathogen transmission.

Key Words: Environmental contamination, Clostridium difficile infections,
Sharps disposal containers
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________________________________*_________________________________

5. Abstract: Patient Preferences for Injectable Treatments for Multiple
Sclerosis in the United States: A Discrete-Choice Experiment
__________________________________________________________________
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40271-015-0136-x/fulltext.html

Patient. 2015 Aug 11. Free Full Text

Patient Preferences for Injectable Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis in
the United States: A Discrete-Choice Experiment.

Poulos C1, Kinter E, Yang JC, Bridges JF, Posner J, Reder AT.

1RTI Health Solutions, 200 Park Offices Drive, Research Triangle Park, PO
Box 12194, Durham, NC, 27709, USA, cpoulos@rti.org.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients’ perceptions and experiences of
medication efficacy, medication adverse events, dosing frequency, and
dosing complexity have been found to influence adherence to injectable
disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) in patients with multiple sclerosis
(MS). The aim of this study was to quantify patient preferences for
features of injectable DMTs for MS.

METHODS: Adult patients in the United States (US) with a self-reported
diagnosis of MS completed an online discrete-choice experiment survey to
assess preference for a number of features of a hypothetical injectable
DMT. Patients chose hypothetical treatments in paired comparisons, where
each treatment was described by features or attributes, including the
number of years until disability progression, the number of relapses in
the next 4 years, injection time, the frequency of injections, the
occurrence of flu-like symptoms (FLS), and severity of injection-site
reactions. Random-parameters logit regression parameters were used to
calculate preference weights of attribute levels and the relative
importance of changes in treatment features.

RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 192 provided
sufficient data for analysis. The results indicated a broad range of
tradeoffs that patients would be willing to make. With regard to this, the
relative importance of an improvement in the number of years until
disability progression from 1 to 2 (i.e., vertical distance between
preference weights for these attribute levels) was 0.9 [95 % confidence
interval (CI) 0.5-1.2], the relative importance of this change was
approximately equivalent to that of an improvement from 12 injections per
month to two (mean 0.8, 95 % CI 0.4-1.2), or approximately equivalent to a
decrease from four to one relapses in the next 4 years (mean 0.8, 95 % CI
0.5-1.2), or FLS 3 days after every injection to 3 days after some
injections (mean 1.0, 95 % CI 0.6-1.4).

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that an improvement in treatment
efficacy may be as important as a reduction in injection frequency or a
reduction in some adverse events for patients who self-administer
injectable DMTs for MS. Understanding the preferences of patients who use
injectable treatments will inform the development of such treatments,
which may in turn improve patient medication adherence and well-being.

Free Full Text
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40271-015-0136-x/fulltext.html
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

6. Abstract: The Use of ShotBlocker for Reducing the Pain and Anxiety
Associated With Intramuscular Injection: A Randomized, Placebo
Controlled Study
__________________________________________________________________
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26263287

Holist Nurs Pract. 2015 Sep-Oct;29(5):261-71.

The Use of ShotBlocker for Reducing the Pain and Anxiety Associated With
Intramuscular Injection: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Study.

Çelik N1, Khorshid L.

1Eskisehir Health Higher School, Eskisehir Osmangazi University,
Eskisehir, Turkey (Dr Çelik); and Faculty of Nursing, Ege University,
Izmir, Turkey (Dr Khorshid).

There are few studies evaluating the effect of ShotBlocker on pain
acquired from intramuscular injection, and these are mostly in children.
We hypothesized that the use of ShotBlocker, while administering an
intramuscular injection, would reduce the pain and anxiety due to
intramuscular injection in adults.

A randomized, placebo controlled trial was carried out for more than 20
months in 2010-2011 on 180 adults aged 18 to 80 years who received
intramuscular injections of diclofenac sodium (75 mg/3 mL) at the
outpatient clinic of a hospital. The patients were grouped into 3 groups:
control, placebo control, and experimental. The experimental group was
given an intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium with ShotBlocker.

Pain intensity was measured through a visual analog scale after the
injection and anxiety was measured using Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety
Inventory. Pulse rate was counted and state and trait anxiety was measured
before and after the injection. The Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon and
Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to evaluate the data.

Patients in the ShotBlocker group had significantly lower pain intensity
than those in the placebo and control groups. State anxiety level
increased after the injection in the experimental group but did not change
in the other 2 groups. ShotBlocker did not affect the pulse rate.

Our results suggest that using ShotBlocker during intramuscular injection
reduced patients’ pain intensity because of injection but did not reduce
anxiety levels. Thus, ShotBlocker is recommended as a pain-relieving tool
during intramuscular injection in adults.
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

7. News

– Canada: In need of collecting needles
– Canada: Recent proposal would see needle disposal box at west entrance
to St. Thomas city hall
– Sharps disposal container re-use may help spread pathogens
– Ebola: Only two Ebola cases reported in past week, but risks remain:
WHO

Selected news items reprinted under the fair use doctrine of international
copyright law: http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html

__________________________________________________________________
http://www.mapleridgenews.com/news/322206001.html

Canada: In need of collecting needles

by Phil Melnychuk – Maple Ridge News, BC Canada (18.08.15)

For Jesse Stretch, picking up needles has become a part-time duty.

For the past two months, he’s been making regular patrols of areas where
needles are found after encountering some in a park one day with his step
children. “For awhile there, it was getting ridiculous.”

Recently, he’s found fewer needles, although he picked up three on Tuesday
in Horsemen’s Park. Stretch, who recently organized a community safety
rally in downtown Maple Ridge, estimates he’s picked up 300 needles in the
past few months.

Hot spots of needle locations seem to move around the city. Nokai Park on
222nd Street and near Harry Hooge elementary are other locations where
he’s found needles. “It’s all over.” He uses a pair of pincers and a dust
pan and wears steal-toe boots so he doesn’t touch the needles.

In one week, he picked up 180 needles. “I was just astounded.”

He’s not alone.

Maple Ridge Mayor Nicole Read doesn’t like the number of needles that are
ending up on the streets. “The issue for us, there’s a reality that those
end up on the ground,” she said.

Maple Ridge doesn’t have a needle exchange service.

The Purpose Society provides clean needles to drug users, but the driver
of its health van quit at the beginning of this month. The society has not
yet found a replacement. Read supports the harm reduction program, but
said the city needs support cleaning up needles.

“I think there’s an accountability there that resides with the program
that’s responsible for the distribution,” she added. “We don’t want
residents having to clean up needles. We find needles that still have
drugs in them, still have blood in them. It’s unsafe for the public.”

The city continues to press its concerns with Fraser Health.

It is also working on creating a mapping system so that locations of
needles can be disclosed to the public. “For now, we need to keep the
public safe and we’re acting in the area of clean up,” Read said. City
employees are regularly checking known hot spots, she added. “It’s
something we have to resolve quite urgently, in my opinion.”

While a search continues for a new outreach worker to provide clean
needles to drug users, there hasn’t been a big jump demand for clean
needles at Alouette Addictions Services. Alouette gives out about 50,000
clean needles yearly to drug users as part of the province’s harm
reduction program.

Annika Polegato said it’s difficult to tell if there is more demand now
that the Purpose Society’s health van, which provided clean needles,
condoms and other personal care items, is operating at reduced hours.

Distributing clean needles is an attempt at reducing disease transmission.
But in order to get one, a user doesn’t have to give a dirty one in
exchange. It’s not a one-for-one system, said Erin Gibson with Fraser
Health. But most people want to do the right thing and bring in their used
needles, she added.

Some cities have a needle return rate of 103 or 104 per cent, meaning more
dirty needles are coming than being handed out. Gibson didn’t know what
the return rate was for Maple Ridge.

She said Fraser Health will work with agencies in Maple Ridge “to find the
most appropriate solutions for Maple Ridge.” That could include providing
drop boxes for needles or drop off points outside buildings where people
can easily leave used needles.

B.C. adopted the harm-reduction model of providing clean needles and other
supplies to reduce spread of disease in 2002. According to the city’s
website, parks staff, as part of their regular work, do look for and
dispose of needles in public park areas.

Parents should always do a quick look around a playground when they first
arrive, the city suggests.

• Anyone who finds a needle should not pick it up. Instead, call the
city’s switchboard at 604-463-5221. In the evening, call 604-463-9581.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
https://tinyurl.com/qheene5

Canada: Recent proposal would see needle disposal box at west entrance to
St. Thomas city hall

By Jennifer Bieman, St. Thomas Times-Journal, Ontario Canada (15.08.15)

Before the year is up, Talbot Street could be home to a brand new needle
disposal box – if city staff and Elgin St. Thomas Public Health have their
way.

Months after announcing a year-long pilot project, representatives from
both organizations will be meeting in the coming weeks to hammer out the
management plan for the disposal box. If all goes smoothly, the unit could
be installed and ready for use by year’s end.

The most recent proposal would see the box installed on the west side of
city hall near one of the entrances after initial plans to locate the box
in Green’s Parkette fell through.

The joint venture will do more than just keep dirty needles from bring
improperly disposed of, it will help the health unit measure community
demand for the units. The organization will closely monitor how much waste
is collected, how often the boxes need to be emptied and the cost to
manage the units.

“We don’t know how well used the bin is going to be. That’s all part of
the investigative process,” said Jaime Fletcher, manager of health
protection programs at the health unit.

“We’re hoping to really give a measurement of is this a need in our
community and if it’s a need, how much of a need it is.”

The health unit’s needle exchange program handed out more than 30,000
clean needles between December 2013 and August 2014. During that same time
period, they received over 20,000 used needles in return. The program
receives 27 visits per month on average.

Fletcher said many needle exchange users are looking for safe and discrete
places to dispose of sharps after hours and is hoping the needle drop box
will fit the bill.

In the early stages of the proposal, the health unit had suggested a
second sharps disposal box in the north end, but city staff were unable to
find a suitable location on public property for the unit.

“We thought we could start with the one in the core to see how that went
and evaluate after a year to see if there’s need,” said Michelle Shannon,
waste management coordinator for the City of St. Thomas.

At the end of the 12-month pilot project, the health unit will prepare a
detailed report outlining disposal box usage and estimated maintenance
costs. Shannon said the city will use the data to decide whether to
continue with the project or install more boxes.

“We’re always looking to mitigate the risk to our employees and contracted
employees and residents,” she said. “If it is successful then maybe it’s
something the city would want to consider taking an active role in.”
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
https://tinyurl.com/psgdea7

Sharps disposal container re-use may help spread pathogens

By David Douglas, Reuters (13.08.15)

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) – Data from more than 500 hospitals suggest that
reusable sharps disposal containers are associated with higher rates of
Clostridium difficile infection, according to a Philadelphia-based
researcher.

Dr. Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz told Reuters Health by email, “This is an
important finding given the ubiquitous use of sharps containers in the
health care setting, the growing trend toward hospitals using reusable
sharps containers, and the high burden of C. difficile.”

In a July 28 online paper in the American Journal of Infection Control,
Dr. Pogorzelska-Maziarz, of the Jefferson College of Nursing at Thomas
Jefferson University, notes that two previous studies have shown greater
contamination with bacteria or fungi in reusable compared to single-use
containers. One, conducted in a community hospital, found that 90% of
newly processed, reusable sharps disposal containers were positive for
bacteria.

To investigate further, the researcher initially analyzed data from a
national survey of U.S. hospitals conducted in December 2013.

Telephone interviews were then conducted to establish the types of sharps
containers employed in 2012. In all, 539 hospitals (27%) with an average
of 239 beds provided data. Most hospitals were nonprofit (67%) and non-
teaching (63%) and most used reusable sharps containers (72%).

In bivariate regression analysis, hospitals using single-use containers
had significantly lower rates of C. difficile, with an incidence rate
ratio of 0.846. After controlling for hospital characteristics, this
continued to be the case in multivariable regression analysis (IRR 0.870).

Dr. Pogorzelska-Maziarz pointed out that the burden associated with C
difficile infections is at a historic high, with an attributable mortality
of more than 14,000 deaths per year and an estimated annual cost to the
U.S. health care system of $4.8 billion.

Thus, she concluded, “More work should be done to examine the potential
for contamination of sharps containers with pathogens, and the role that
different types of sharps containers may play in their transmission within
the healthcare setting.”

Becton, Dickenson and Company supported this research and employed Dr.
Pogorzelska-Maziarz as a consultant.

SOURCE: http://bit.ly/1HJaZ35 Am J Infect Control 2015.

(c) Copyright Thomson Reuters 2015
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
https://tinyurl.com/nh32z7r

Ebola: Only two Ebola cases reported in past week, but risks remain: WHO

By Stephanie Nebehay, Reuters, GENEVA (04.08.15)

Guinea and Sierra Leone each recorded a single cases of Ebola in the past
week, putting a year-end goal of ending the deadly epidemic within reach,
although risks remain, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on
Tuesday.

Tight surveillance and tracing contacts of infected people remain crucial,
WHO Assistant-Director Bruce Aylward said. They are especially challenging
during the heavy rains in August.

In the previous week to July 26, the two countries had seven confirmed
cases, which was the lowest in the past year up until then, according to
the WHO.

“We have gone over the last four weeks from 30 cases (per week) to 25 to
seven and, in the last week, two cases. That progress is real,” Aylward
told a news briefing.

Ebola re-emerged last month in Liberia, after the country was declared
officially free of the virus in May, but “appears now to be stopped,
although it is early days”, Aylward said.

He stressed the need to maintain vigilance in all three countries, while
dampening hopes of quickly stamping out the hemorrhagic disease, which has
killed more than 11,200 people in West Africa since December 2013.

“There is a huge risk of unrealistic expectations that this will go from
here to zero. It won’t. We will have additional flares. This could still
go on for additional months before it gets stopped,” he said.

Already this week, two new Ebola cases have been confirmed in Tonkolili,
Sierra Leone, where several other suspect cases are being investigated, he
said.

“In Tonkolil,i where this person went to two health facilities and then
eventually died, they have actually quarantined a whole village plus a
whole hospital. So they have got nearly 600 people quarantined around a
single case,” Aylward said, pointing to “massive operations” to stop the
spread.

It was a “realistic goal to have transmission of this epidemic stopped
this year,” Aylward said.

“There is a lot of challenges between here and there, one very, very
difficult rainy season in August. Remember, last year it took off in
August.”

The WHO said last Friday that a trial in Guinea found an Ebola vaccine to
have been 100 percent effective.

Initial results from the trial, which tested Merck and NewLink Genetics
VSV-ZEBOV vaccine on some 4,000 people who had been in close contact with
a confirmed Ebola case, showed complete protection after 10 days.

“It’s not a game changer as much as it is an enhancer,” Aylward said. “The
game is still about case-finding, contact-tracing, rapid isolation, safe
burials. That’s how you stop Ebola, certainly in the current period.”

(Reporting by Stephanie Nebehay; Editing by Larry King)
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

New WHO Injection Safety Guidelines

WHO is urging countries to transition, by 2020, to the exclusive use of
the new “smart” syringes, except in a few circumstances in which a syringe
that blocks after a single use would interfere with the procedure.

The new guideline is:

WHO Guideline on the use of Safety-Engineered Syringes for Intramuscular,
Intradermal and Subcutaneous Injections in Health Care

It is available for free download or viewing at this link:
www.who.int/injection_safety/global-campaign/injection-safety_guidline.pdf

PDF Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader [620 KB]
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________
Making all injections safe brochure

This is an illustrated summary brochure for the general public.

pdf, 554kb [6 pages]

www.who.int/injection_safety/global-campaign/injection-safety_brochure.pdf
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________

SIGN Meeting 2015

The Safe Injection Global Network SIGN meeting was held on 23-24 February
2015 at WHO Headquarters in Geneva Switzerland

The main topic of the meeting was the new injection safety policy
recommendation and developing the appropriate strategies for
implementation in countries worldwide.

A report of the meeting will be posted ASAP
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________*_________________________________
* SAFETY OF INJECTIONS brief yourself at: www.injectionsafety.org

A fact sheet on injection safety is available at:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs231/en/index.html

* Visit the WHO injection safety website and the SIGN Alliance Secretariat
at: http://www.who.int/injection_safety/en/

* Download the WHO Best Practices for Injections and Related Procedures
Toolkit March 2010 [pdf 2.47Mb]:
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599252_eng.pdf

Use the Toolbox at: http://www.who.int/injection_safety/toolbox/en/

Get SIGN files on the web at: http://signpostonline.info/signfiles-2
get SIGNpost archives at: http://signpostonline.info/archives-by-year

Like on Facebook: http://facebook.com/SIGN.Moderator

The SIGN Secretariat, the Department of Health Systems Policies and
Workforce, WHO, Avenue Appia 20, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Facsimile: +41 22 791 4836 E- mail: sign@who.int
__________________________________________________________________
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All members of the SIGN Forum are invited to submit messages, comment on
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